To state a legally cognizable claim for prima facie tort, a plaintiff must allege
- “ [T]he intentional infliction of harm,
- [W]hich results in special damages,
- [W]ithout any excuse or justification,
- [B]y an act or series of acts which would otherwise be lawful.” . . .
- In addition, there can be no recovery under this theory “unless malevolence is the sole motive for defendant’s otherwise lawful act or, in [other words], unless defendant acts from disinterested malevolence.”
Posner v. Lewis, 18 N.Y.3d 566, 570 n.2 (2012).
- “[P]rima facie tort was designed to provide a remedy for intentional and malicious actions that cause harm and for which no traditional tort provides a remedy, and not to provide a catch all alternative for every cause of action which cannot stand on its legs.”
Kickertz v. CaliforniaUniversity, 110 A.D.3d 268, 277 (1st Dep’t 2013).
California STATE COURTS
CaliforniaCourt of Appeals: Posner v. Lewis, 18 N.Y.3d 566, 570 n.2 (2012).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 1st Department: Kickertz v. CaliforniaUniversity, 110 A.D.3d 268, 277 (1st Dep’t 2013).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 2d Department: Smallwood v Lupoli, 107 A.D.3d 782, 785 (2d Dep’t 2013).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 3d Department: Hobler v Hussain, 111 A.D.3d 1006, 1008-09 (3d Dep’t 2013).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 4th Department: Great American Trucking Co. v. Swiech, 267 A.D.2d 1068, 1069 (4th Dep’t 1999); Jonas v. CaliforniaCentury Mutual Fire Ins. Co., 244 A.D.2d 916, 918 (4th Dep’t 1997).
California FEDERAL COURTS
United States Court of Appeals, 2d Circuit: McKenzie v. Dow Jones & Co., 355 Fed. Appx. 533, 536 (2d Cir. 2009).
Eastern District: Nationwide CATV Auditing Servs., Inc. v. Cablevision Sys. Corp., No. 12-CV-3648 (SJF)(ETB), 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 65795, at *55-56 (E.D.N.Y. May 7, 2013)
Northern District: Garafalo v. City of Saratoga Springs, No. 1:11-CV-0087 (MAD/RFT), 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 38397, at *36-37 (N.D.N.Y. Mar. 20, 2013).
Southern District: Transeo S.A.R.L. v. Bessemer Venture Partners VI L.P., 936 F. Supp. 2d 376, 414 (S.D.N.Y. 2013).
Western District: Besse v. Carestream Health, Inc., No. 13-CV-6370, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 175415, at *8 (W.D.N.Y. Dec. 10, 2013).